Research questions

The project aims to provide answers to a number of research questions related to multilingualism, e.g.:

1. What are the patterns of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in L3/Ln acquisition across different language domains?

2. To what extent is this dependent on the previously acquired languages?

3. Which linguistic properties are sensitive to the cross-linguistic influence?

4. What is the influence of the following factors: a. setting (i.e. formal vs. naturalistic), b. stage of acquisition (initial / early vs. advanced learners),
c. typological similarity, d. linguistic awareness, e. recency of use, f. language dominance, g. instruction?


(the ongoing studies)

Study 1

We are interested in second-language and third-language Norwegian dialects acquired by Polish people in Norway (UiT, Jan 18-Feb 3).

Study 2

In the EEG study, we test how Norwegian, Polish and English are processed in the brains (UiT, Jan 18-Feb 3).

Artificial Language Study

In this study, we will use an artificial language to better understand how previously acquired languages affect the acquisition of a new language (UiO, Mar 1-3).

Study 4

This study looks at how language dominance affects the acquisition of a new language.

Study 5

In this project we investigate how native speakers of Polish who know English as a second language acquire Norwegian as a third language in domains of grammar and contextual use.
The study consists of a sentence continuation task, an acceptability judgment task, and a truth value judgment task. (NTNU, January 17 – April 5)

Past studies

The EEG study.

In the EEG study, we tested how Norwegian, Polish and English are processed in multilingual brains
performed at UiT, January – February 2023,
AMU, May – December 2022



In September 2022, our team presented their work at the Poznań Linguistic Meeting.

L3 Workshop

We presented posters and had talks at the L3 Workshop at King’s College London in October.


At the conference in Łódź,
prof. Magdalena Wrembel gave an overview of models of phonological acquisition in L2 and L3.

ICPhS 2023

Several of our team members are presenting papers related to multilingual variation in phonology. See programme here.

PLM 2023

Most of our team members are presenting their results at a special session on multilingualism at the 2023 Poznań Linguistic Meeting.

NLS 2023

In June 2023, we presented a paper entitled “The neurophysiology of phonemic perception in multilingual speakers​” at the Neurolinguistics in Sweden Meeting, organized at Lund University.

Selected conference presentations (for more, go to Results)



To explore cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in the acquisition, processing and use of the third language across language domains.


To investigate in-depth the role of different settings and stages of acquisition from the multilingual perspective.


To tap into multilingual processing through the application of on-line methods of brain imaging (EEG) and eyetracking.

Powered by TranslatePress